The exact cause for development of Myeloma has not been detected yet. Thus it is not possible to prevent this disease. But patients, who have risk factors of Myeloma, can consult their doctor for routine check-ups and early detection of this disease.

Normally a patient with Myeloma is referred to a haematologist or oncologist. The physical condition, genetics, and medical history of the patient are considered before the treatment. Patient may consult with multiple doctors before deciding the specialist for the treatment. The doctor will tell them about different treatment methods, their benefits and harm and, which one is suitable for them. He will first determine the stage of the disease and then suggest the treatment on that basis.

Treatment for each individual may differ based on his or her condition and the spread of the disease. Normally treatment methods such as chemotherapy, corticosteroids and radiation are used for treatment depending on the patient’s need. Some patients may need supportive care for treatment of other complications arising due to this disease.

Myeloma is not fully curable. Treatment is done for complete remission. In this process small numbers of myeloma cells may remain in the body. But these cells do not show any symptoms and are not detectable. Treatment tries to prevent damage to different body parts such as bones, kidneys, and other organs. Some patients may experience recurring of the disease.

Different methods are used for treatment of Myeloma depending on the patient’s physical and medical condition and the spread of disease. These methods help in slowing down the growth of the myeloma cells and reducing bone pain, fatigue, and other symptoms of this disease. Treatment methods of Myeloma are listed below.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is also used as a treatment method for Myeloma. Patients are prescribed with chemo drugs to prevent the spread of Myeloma cells. These drugs kill or slow down development of Myeloma cells. Use of Chemo drug could lead to many short term side effects such as hair loss, poor appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea, or mouth and lip sores. It could also cause easy infections, easy bruising or bleeding.

Immunomodulators

In this treatment method patients are given different drugs, which target specific areas of the immune system and restore immune functions in the body. These drugs are known as immunomodulators.

Anaemia drugs

Myeloma could lead to severe anaemia or shortage of red blood cells in the body. Drugs to treat anaemia are also given to patients of Myeloma to maintain normal level of red blood cells in the body.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is another method used for treatment of Myeloma. It is used to kill the Myeloma cells. But long term and high level of exposure to radiation may increase risk of developing other types of cancer. It could also cause side effects. Some may go with end of treatment and some may be long lasting.

Stem cell transplant

Stem cell transplant is used to replace destroyed normal bone marrow in the process of other treatments. For purpose of transplant patient’s own stem cells saved before treatment, stem cells donated by someone else or an identical twin are used. Transplant with patients own stem cells is known as autologous transplant. Transplant with someone else’s donated stem cells is known as allogeneic transplant. Using stem cells donated by identical twin in transplant is known as syngeneic transplant.

Some patients also participate in clinical trials of different treatment methods that are in experimentation stage. They may undergo different experimental therapies as well.

Causes and Risk Factors of Myeloma

Diagnosis and Staging Of Myeloma